LLM Help

Frequently Asked Questions - General Information

The Basics

Transcripts, Scores, and Other Academic Records

Letters of Recommendation

Law School Reports


The Basics

What is the LLM Credential Assembly Service (LLM CAS)?

The LLM Credential Assembly Service (LLM CAS) is offered by LSAC to simplify the application process for eligible graduates of universities or law schools who wish to obtain an LLM degree from an LLM CAS-participating law school. The admission documents that schools require may vary, but most US schools will ask for transcripts, TOEFL® or IELTS™ scores (where applicable), and other relevant, official documents, all of which must be authenticated. The LLM CAS provides an efficient and convenient way to apply to multiple programs. Applicants arrange for the submission of only one set of official school documents to LSAC for authentication and evaluation (if applicable). We will duplicate as needed. The authenticated documents are forwarded to all participating law schools to which the applicant applies.

The LLM CAS creates your law school report by combining:

  • copies of all undergraduate, graduate, and law/professional school transcripts, as required by each school;
  • an International Credential Evaluation report (for internationally-educated applicants only);
  • copies of letters of recommendation, if required; and
  • copies of English proficiency scores, if applicable.

What are the requirements for eligibility for the LLM Credential Assembly Service?

To be eligible to apply to a participating LLM program, you must have completed, or be in the process of completing, a degree that entitles you to practice law. If you are in the process of completing your degree, you should arrange for a transcript of any and all available grades to be sent to us. Later, when you have completed your degree, you should arrange for the final transcript to be sent, at which time we will update your report free of charge.

LSAC maintains a Minimum Degree Requirements by Country chart. We understand that, in some countries, the names of these degrees are in the process of changing. What most law schools require is a law degree that allows you to practice law in that country. If either your degree or your country of study is not listed, please contact the law school(s) of interest to you to confirm eligibility.

Note that we list only the minimum requirements. Candidates are expected to present all postsecondary education, including work completed prior to and after the minimum degree listed, according to the requirements of the law schools to which you apply. Any omission of required education history could delay the review of your credentials and, thereby, delay our report to the law schools.

If you earned your JD (first degree in law) from a US law school, and you are applying to a school that requires you to forward your documents to LSAC, then you must register for the Document Assembly Service. If you earned your first degree in law outside of the US, and you are applying to a school that requires you to forward your documents to LSAC, then you must register for the International Transcript Authentication and Evaluation Service in addition to the Document Assembly Service.

Who is LSAC?

The Law School Admission Council (LSAC) is a nonprofit corporation that provides unique, state-of-the-art products and services to ease the admission process for law schools and their applicants worldwide. More than 200 law schools in the United States, Canada, and Australia are members of the Council and benefit from LSAC's services. All law schools approved by the American Bar Association are LSAC members, as are Canadian law schools recognized by a provincial or territorial law society or government agency. Many nonmember law schools also take advantage of LSAC's services. For all users, LSAC strives to provide the highest quality of products, services, and customer service.

Founded in 1947, the Council is best known for administering the Law School Admission Test (LSAT®), with over 170,000 tests administered annually at testing centers worldwide. LSAC also processes academic credentials for an average of 85,000 law school applicants annually, provides essential software and information for admission offices and applicants, conducts educational conferences for law school professionals and prelaw advisors, sponsors and publishes research, funds diversity and other outreach grant programs, and publishes LSAT preparation books and law school guides, among many other services.

Who is AACRAO?

LSAC has contracted with the American Association of Collegiate Registrars and Admissions Officers (AACRAO) to provide evaluations of education credentials from all countries of the world. AACRAO's extensive expertise in the field of international education credential evaluation assures consistent and accurate treatment of all international education credentials used in the LLM Credential Assembly Service.

Do I need to sign up for the LLM Credential Assembly Service (LLM CAS)?

Many ABA-approved law schools require or recommend use of the LLM Credential Assembly Service (LLM CAS). If you earned your JD from a US law school, and you are applying to a school that requires you to forward your documents to LSAC, then you must register for the LLM CAS Document Assembly Service. If you earned your first degree in law outside of the US, and you are applying to a school that requires you to forward your documents to LSAC, then you must register for the International Transcript Authentication and Evaluation Service in addition to the Document Assembly Service. If you earned your first degree in law outside of the US and its territories, and you are not applying to any school that requires the International Transcript Authentication and Evaluation feature of the LLM Credential Assembly Service (LLM CAS), then you are not required to register for it. However, you may choose to register for the LLM Credential Assembly Service's (LLM CAS) Document Assembly Service feature if you wish to use the electronic law school application(s) or the Letter of Recommendation Service.

How do I make payment for service and/or report fees?

  • Document Assembly Service - $75 fee
  • International Transcript Authentication and Evaluation Service – $125 fee in addition to Document Assembly Service (only for LLM applicants educated outside the US)
  • Law School Report - $16 for the initial report generated for each school program for each program year. If you apply to multiple programs within the same year, you will have to pay a fee for each program to which a report is sent.

A valid credit card is required for payment of your online registration.

In order to complete your purchase, you must first log in to your LLM CAS account. Once logged in, at the top right of the browser window there is a link that says Cart. Click on Cart and it will take you to a page that lists everything you are ordering and the total purchase price. At the bottom of the screen, there is a button that says Checkout. Click Checkout and it will take you to the next page, where you may enter your billing information and complete your order.

Credit Card Denial/Stop Payments

If credit card authorization is denied, a hold will be placed on your file, and neither credential assembly/evaluation nor law school reporting will be possible until the outstanding balance is paid in full. Credit card denial will not cancel your registration for this credential service.

Are law school application fees included in the LLM Credential Assembly Service (LLM CAS) fee or in the law school reports fee?

No, application fees are not included in these fees. Check each law school's application instructions for information about their fees.

Do I still have to apply to each law school separately if I register for the LLM Credential Assembly Service?

You remain responsible for the completion of each of your law school applications. However, applicants applying to a participating LLM program can use the LLM Credential Assembly Service interactive web site to apply to LLM programs offered by participating schools. The applications are up-to-date as of the time they were submitted to LSAC.

Important: You are responsible for the accuracy of your law school applications. It is a good idea to check each law school's website or catalog to make sure your application materials are complete and on time.

Carefully check your completed applications before electronically sending them to LSAC or mailing them to the schools.

Your LLM Credential Assembly Service $75 Document Assembly fee covers electronic application processing for participating LLM programs. To get started:

  • search for law schools that interest you and add them to your school list;
  • click on the name of each school in your list to access its application and other information;
  • go to the application for that school and enter all of the required data.

Make sure to follow all of the school's requirements, including fee payment.

How long will it take to process my credentials?

Allow two weeks from the time of receipt for us to process your transcripts. Transcripts from undergraduate and graduate schools located outside of the US require additional processing time. You are urged to make arrangements for transcripts to arrive at LSAC at least four weeks before your first law school application deadline.

I received an e-mail containing my password but never requested it. Why is this? Is my account still secure?

If you forget your username or password, you can enter your information on our username/password recovery form, and it will be sent to the e-mail address we have on file for you.

What probably happened is that someone else using the system thought they had the username you are using and entered that into the recovery form. This happens every once in a while, especially for users whose usernames are fairly common. There is no risk to your account security, and it is safe to delete those e-mails.

How can I check the status of an order?

Once you are logged in to your account, click on the My Account tab and view the detailed report about your purchases.

I have already completed my registration but need to make changes. How can I do this?

If you have registered for a service, any change to name or date of birth must be submitted to LSAC in writing and requires a signature. Fax, mail, or scan and e-mail your signed request for correction to LSAC.

Fax: 215.504.1456

E-mail:

LSAC LLM CAS
662 Penn Street
PO BOX 8511
Newtown PA 18940-8511
USA

All other biographical information may be changed online. Click the My Account tab and select profile.

LSAC reserves the right to update your biographical data based on information you provide in connection with the services you use. Information you provided to a law school on an electronic law school application does not update your LSAC.org account.

How can I add an institution that I forgot to list on my LLM Credential Assembly Service (LLM CAS) account?

Choose the Credentials/Transcripts link under the Apply tab on your LLM account. Then click on the applicable Add Institution button to add the school. If the Add Institution button is not visible please send your request to . Include the name of the school, country in which located, dates attended, degree expected or awarded if applicable, and your name and LSAC account number.

How do I add schools to My School List?

Click the School Search tab. You have three search options:

  1. Search Schools – Alphabetical, which provides a list of all schools that you may apply to using LSAC online applications;
  2. Search Schools – Areas of Interest, which provides a list of law schools by LLM Program Name; and
  3. Search Schools – Location, which provides a view of a United States map and allows you to choose schools according to their geographical location.

You may add schools from all three places. Simply click on the Add box in front of the school name to save a school to your school list. Click on My School List, after making your choices, to view the list of schools you have saved. When you have made selections to your school list, you may rank them in order of interest to you and add notes for yourself about each school. This information is solely for your use; the law schools cannot view your notes or the ranks you have assigned to your school choices.

When does my account expire?

Your account expiration date and the service(s) for which you registered are listed on the left side of your online LLM account pages.

How do I request a refund?

LLM Credential Assembly Service (LLM CAS) fees are only partially refundable, due to the fact that processing costs are incurred in the registration process, regardless of whether you actually use the service.

Because of the large volume of registrations received, LSAC cannot prevent the processing of a registration once it is submitted. Refund policies apply to all methods of registration and are enforced without exception.

If we have not yet received your first degree in law transcript, no letters of recommendation have been received, and no electronic applications have been sent to LSAC for processing, LSAC will refund $38 of the Document Assembly Service fee, $63 of the International Transcript Authentication and Evaluation Service fee and the fees paid for the law school reports. Your request must be in writing and received before your LLM Credential Assembly Service (LLM CAS) registration expires. Your refund will take approximately six weeks to process, and your service will be canceled.

For all refund requests, include your name, address, LSAC account number, signature, and date. Mail to:

LSAC
LLM Credential Assembly Service
PO BOX 8511
Newtown PA 18940-8511
USA

Or fax to 215.504.1456

Transcripts, Scores, and Other Academic Records

What is a Transcript?

Transcript is the term most commonly used in the US for the official school record, listing one's coursework and grades earned.

For those educated outside of the US, transcripts may be known to you as mark sheets, grade sheets, course records, academic records, or examination results and include, where applicable, diploma and diploma supplement, degree certificate and graduation certificate, and first state exam certificate. The transcript is a complete list of courses taken and grades earned at an institution, college, university, or school.

How will LSAC obtain my transcripts?

It is your responsibility to arrange for your institution(s) to send transcripts, academic records, mark sheets, etc., to LSAC directly, by mail, in a sealed institution envelope. Neither electronic copies nor student-issued copies are acceptable.

Send the Transcript Request Form to each of the post-secondary schools you have listed on your account, regardless of whether or not a degree was completed, and ask each of them to complete the form and return it to us by mail together with your official transcript. This includes those schools you have visited for a semester or summer abroad. Student-issued documents are not acceptable. When using an express mail service, the sealed institution envelope should be contained inside of the express mailer. Documents will not be accepted loose inside of the express mailer. For those educated outside of the US and its territories, we require an official transcript in the NATIVE LANGUAGE to be sent to us directly from the issuing institution. Only the English translation may come from the candidate.

Transcripts will not be returned to candidates under any circumstances. LSAC will not accept WES or any other outside evaluations in place of transcripts.

What is the Transcript Request Form?

The Transcript Request Form may be printed out at the completion of your online registration and must accompany each of your transcripts. You will always find a link to the corresponding Transcript Request Form under each of the institutions you have listed on your Transcripts page. Send the form to every postsecondary institution required by the law schools to which you are applying and ask each institution to complete the form and to send an official transcript to LSAC at the address noted on the form.

Where can I get my Transcript Request Forms?

Transcript Request Forms will be available in your LLM account only after you create an LLM account and enter your institution information. Once you are logged in to your LLM account, click on the Apply tab and select Credentials/Transcripts to obtain a form for each institution listed.

To what address do I have transcripts sent?

This address will be listed on your Transcript Request Form.

LSAC LLM Credential Assembly Service
662 Penn Street
PO BOX 8511
Newtown PA 18940-8511
USA

For express mail service, omit "PO BOX 8511."

Do you accept Class Rank Statements?

If you are applying to law schools that require your class rank and you would like it included in your LLM CAS Report, then you should ask your institution to include a statement of rank with the transcript that they mail to us. Where applicable, this includes a statement to the fact that your institution does not use a system of class rank. Such statements must come from the institution in a sealed institution envelope. We will not accept class rank statements written or sent by the candidate.

I am enrolled in a program of study for which no grades have been recorded yet. How do I satisfy the transcript requirement?

When no grades are available yet, we ask that you arrange for the school to send us written confirmation of your current enrollment, including your name, the program in which you are enrolled, the anticipated date of completion, and the degree you are expected to earn (if applicable). It should be mailed in a sealed institution envelope to the address provided on your LSAC LLM Transcript Request Form.

Will my LLM Credential Assembly Service (LLM CAS) report be sent if all transcripts have not been received?

While we require the academic records for each institution you have listed, some reports may be sent with only partial documentation available. Each law school has designated its own LSAC report preferences. Some require all documentation before a report is sent to them, while others will accept the report with only your first degree in law transcript and await the remaining documents. In any event, you are urged to make arrangements for the delivery of your transcripts as early in the application process as possible.

Will I receive a copy of the Credential Evaluation report?

Once your report is complete it will be available for you to view via your online account. You will have access to view the summary of the report, but copies of your transcripts will not be available to view. We are authorized to make copies of your academic records available only to the law schools that participate in the LSAC LLM Credential Assembly Service.

My grade average is different on my transcripts than on the Credential Evaluation Report. Why?

For candidates using the evaluation and authentication service, the grade average reported will usually match the one on your official transcript. In some cases it may differ because, unlike some schools, our evaluators do include failed and repeated courses in the calculation of the grade average.

What if I disagree with the evaluation of my credentials?

If, after reviewing the completed evaluation of your credentials, you wish to challenge an item(s) on the report, you may do so by requesting a reevaluation.

If you find an error, print the report, circle the error, and write the correct information on the report. Mail the corrected report and accompanying explanation to:

Law School Admission Council
LLM Credential Assembly Service
662 Penn Street
PO BOX 8511
Newtown PA 18940-8511
USA

You will be notified of the outcome of LSAC's review of your corrections. Note: What may look like an error to you could be the result of a policy or procedure the law schools have asked us to implement.

Please note that the following instances do not require reevaluation:

  • If we already have a transcript and your report is complete, but the same school sends us a final/updated/corrected transcript after the fact.
    In this case, we will update your report free of charge upon receipt of the official updated transcript from the school.
  • Adding a TOEFL/IELTS score, regardless of whether or not the report has been completed. Scores may be added at any time free of charge.

Is the TOEFL or IELTS required and where should results be sent?

Most schools will ask applicants for whom English is not their native language to take a standardized test. Each school sets its own standard for required minimal scores on the tests. While the LLM programs may accept scores from various testing agencies, LSAC will only accept score reports for either TOEFL or IELTS exams. LSAC will include your TOEFL/IELTS score(s) on your LLM International Credential Evaluation upon receipt of an official score report from the testing service.

We have arranged with the Educational Testing Service (ETS) to receive your score(s) electronically. This is only possible if and when you supply ETS with our institution code 8395 at the time that you place your order for a copy of the score report to be sent to LSAC. Any department code will do, regardless of the corresponding department name. We cannot accept paper copies from candidates. Law schools participating in this credential service will accept your results as part of your LSAC LLM law school report, so there is no need to have additional copies sent to the participating law schools. It is your responsibility to learn from the law school(s) how old of a score is acceptable.

LSAC has also arranged with IELTS to receive scores electronically, however, you MUST indicate before or at the time of your exam that LSAC receive an official score report. If you do not make the request at this time, LSAC will be unable to retrieve your score information. In this case, please have your score report sent directly to the school(s) to which you apply.

Please note that once we receive a TOEFL or IELTS score, it cannot be deleted or replaced. There are no exceptions to this rule. In the event that we already have a score on file for you, and you decide to retest and have the new score sent to us, we will report both scores. The new score will not replace the previous, regardless of how long ago the previous score was reported. LSAC will report all English proficiency scores on your law school report.

If we receive your TOEFL or IELTS score(s) after your report has been completed and/or released to a participating law school, we will update your report to reflect your test results free of charge. The updated report will automatically be forwarded to the school(s) that previously received your report.

Letters of Recommendation

Am I required to use the LLM Letter of Recommendation Service?

Use of the service is optional unless a law school to which you are applying states that its use is required. You should always check the specific letter of recommendation requirements of each law school to which you are applying by consulting each law school's application materials.

Will the LLM Letter of Recommendation Service accept letters from my institution's credential service or career planning office?

Yes, LSAC will accept letters of recommendation from such a service. The LLM Letter of Recommendation Form must accompany each letter. When the form is completed by the institution's service, the lower portion may either be filled in with the recommender's name and address, or—if the recommender's address is not available—with the recommender's name and the address of the institution's service.

Do I need to request more than one letter from a recommender when I intend to send the same letter to multiple law schools?

No. You need to request only one "general" letter when the content is the same. You then designate the school(s) to which you want the letter sent. See the "How do I?" Guide in your online account for instructions on assigning letters/evaluations to be sent with law school reports.

How do I obtain LLM Letter of Recommendation forms?

You may print out pre-filled Letter of Recommendation Forms from your LLM account once you have entered your recommender information and assigned your letter(s) to each law school. Each form contains a barcode and is pre-populated with your information and your recommender's information for easy printing.

When will law school(s) receive my letter(s) of recommendation?

They may be sent upon receipt, when your file is complete, or at a later date, dependent upon the preferences of each law school. Letter(s) received by LSAC after law school(s) receive your initial LLM Credential Assembly Service (LLM CAS) report will be sent to school(s) in accordance with the preferences they have specified to LSAC.

Why can't I change which letters of recommendation will be sent to a school?

You may make a change only if the letter has not been sent. You may not remove a letter once a law school report has been printed or after the school's term has ended. If the school will accept more letters than initially directed, you may direct additional letters to this school. The additional letters will be sent to the school when the school receives the next law school report.

Law School Reports

What is included in the LLM Credential Assembly Service (LLM CAS) report to law schools?

The LLM Credential Assembly Service creates your law school report by combining

  • copies of all undergraduate, graduate, and law/professional school transcripts, as required by each school;
  • an International Credential Evaluation report (for international applicants only);
  • copies of letters of recommendation, if required; and
  • copies of English proficiency exam scores, if applicable.

How do I order law school reports?

When you submit your application to a specific LLM program online, you will be required to pay for the report at that time. If you apply using a paper application, or if you are not submitting a law school application through LSAC, then you may pay for the law school report by adding a report to your Shopping Cart from the Apply/Applications page of your LLM CAS account. The cost is $16 a report. Note: We are unable to send law school reports at your request.

How will the law schools get my report?

You do not need to inform LSAC of the law schools to which you want reports sent. Once you apply to the schools, they will request your report directly from LSAC. Just be sure to pay for the number of reports you need. Failure to pay for the number of reports you need will delay the forwarding of your reports to the law schools. Note: We are unable to send law school reports at your request.

How many law school reports do I need?

You need one report for each participating LLM program to which you are applying. When you use the LLM Credential Assembly Service, you will be charged for a report to each LLM program to which you are applying electronically. If you are applying on paper, you may order a report for the school(s) via your online Shopping Cart.

How do I inform LSAC about the law schools I want to receive my report?

You do not need to inform LSAC of the law schools to which you want reports sent. Once you apply to the schools, they will request your report directly from LSAC. Just be sure to pay for the number of reports you need. Failure to pay for the number of reports you need will delay the forwarding of your reports to the law schools.

Why was more than one report sent to a law school?

After the initial report is sent to the law school, an update is sent in the event that we then receive additional or updated transcript data, TOEFL/IELTS score(s), or letter(s) of recommendation. The status message on the report will list the reason for the update.

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